1907 SAINT GAUDENS
Circulation strikes: 0
Designer: Augustus Saint-Gaudens
Gold - 90%
Other - 10%
Weight: ±516 grains
Mintmark: None (for
Philadelphia) above the date)
many were struck?
The original mintage of the
Ultra-High Relief Double Eagles is not known exactly, but a range of 19
to 22 pieces has been established based on evidence from people who were
present when the coins were struck and/or from later researchers.
of 19 comes from the recollections of Frank Leach. The figure of 24 comes
from Walter Breen, relying perhaps on Augustus Saint-Gaudens’ assistant,
Henry Hering. According to Breen, two of the 24 were melted, leaving a
total of 22 pieces.
following roster of known examples is consistent with a range of 19 to 22
pieces. The list includes 20 pieces, of which some are duplications of
the same coin.
Roster of Known Examples:
1. Ex - Frank Hein Family - sold
in 2000 for $1.1 million to Monex Rare Coins - Ira & Larry Goldberg -
prominent West Coast collector. Believed to be earlier ex - Colonel
Edward Green collection - C.T. Weihman - Stack’s “J. F. Bell I (Jake
Shapiro)” auction, December 1944, Lot 867A. PCGS Proof-68.
Smithsonian Institution. Ex - United States Numismatic Collection, 1907.
Smithsonian Institution. Ex - Robert Schermerhorn - Josiah K. Lilly -
donated in 1968 by the Lilly estate. This may be one of the other coins
Smithsonian Institution. Ex - Saint Gaudens, 1907 - Theodore Roosevelt -
Cornelius Van Schaak Roosevelt, donated in 1962.
Ex - Charles Barber - Arthur J. Fecht - American Numismatic Society.
With serif, inverted edge lettering.
Connecticut State Library. Ex - Joseph Mitchelson, 1913.
collection. Ex - Theodore Roosevelt - Daniel Terra - Stack’s “Ted Ullmer”
sale, May 1974, Lot 546 - Manfra, Tordella and Brookes.
Bass Research Foundation . Ex - Thomas L. Elder auction, November 1920 -
John H. Clapp - purchased in 1942 by Louis Eliasberg, Sr. - Bowers & Ruddy
“The United States Gold Coin Collection”, 1982, Lot 1021, sold for
$242,000 - Mike Brownlee as agent for Harry Bass.
9. Ex - A-Mark Coin Company - Q. David Bowers - Abe Kosoff, 1971 -
S. Bloomfield - Sotheby’s “The Sam and Rie Bloomfield Foundation” sale,
December 1995, Lot 35, sold for $825,000 (a world record price for a
United States gold coin at the time) - Dwight Manley. Believed to be the finest example
known. With serifs, inverted edge letters.
Unknown. Ex - B. Max Mehl’s “Jerome Kern Collection” sale, May 23, 1950,
Private collection. Ex - King Farouk - Sotheby’s “Palace Collection” sale
in Cairo, Egypt, 1954, Lot 296 - Auctions by Bowers & Merena, Inc.’s “Abe
Kosoff Collection” sale, 1985. Possibly with inverted edge letters.
Private collection. Ex - Yale University - Empire Coin Company (circa
1960) - Abner Kreisberg - Kreisberg/Schulman auction, February 16-18,
1961, Lot 1417 - Stack’s sale, October 1985, Lot 822.
York Private collection. Ex - James Kelly “American Numismatic
Association” sale, 1956, Lot 1773 - Dr. John E. Wilkison collection -
Paramount - A-Mark - Auction ‘80, Lot 977 - Ed Trompeter - purchased by
Heritage, graded NGC Proof-69 and sold for a reported $1.5 million.
Inverted edge letters.
Ex - Captain North collection, exhibited by Stack’s
at the 1956 American Numismatic Association convention (North’s cased set
of 1908 gold coins included a pair of Ultra-High Relief $20 gold piece,
one with a regular edge and this unique plain edge) - the complete set
sold in March 1980 for $1 million to New England Rare Coin Galleries, who
promptly broke the set up and sold the coins individually - sold at the
1981 A.N.A. convention to John Dannreuther - sold circa 1983-1984 to James
Jelinski for over $300,000.00 - private collector. Plain edge.
Broken reverse die, believed to have been the last example struck.
Private collection. Ex - Captain North collection, exhibited by Stack’s
at the 1956 American Numismatic Association convention (North’s cased set
of 1908 gold coins included a pair of Ultra-High Relief $20 gold piece,
this one with a regular edge and a unique plain edge) - the complete set
sold in March 1980 for $1 million to New England Rare Coin Galleries in
March, who promptly broke the set up and sold the coins individually, this
coin appearing in their “Boston Jubilee” sale, Lot 323, sold for $175,000
to Julian Leidman and several partners - purchased by Hugh Sconyers at the
Boston A.N.A. convention - Superior Galleries “Auction ‘85” sale, July 1985 - Manfra, Tordella & Brookes -
Ira Einhorn - sold in 1990 for $1.5 million to Warren Trepp - Kevin Lipton
- Blanchard & Co. Inverted edge lettering.
Canadian collector. Ex - Saint Gaudens family - Albert Fairchild
Holden - Emery May Norweb - R. Henry Norweb, Jr. - Auctions by Bowers &
Merena, Inc.’s “Norweb Collection” sale, January 8, 1997, Lot 353 - Dwight
Manley - Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc.’s “Dr. Richard
Ariagno Collection” sale, May 31-June 2, 1999, Lot 885, as PCGS Proof-67,
sold for $1.2 million - Tangible Investments of America - Ira & Larry
Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc. “The Benson Collection, Part III”
sale, February 24-25, 2003, Lot 2178, now as PCGS Proof-68 - purchased and
sold privately by Ira & Larry Goldberg. Regular edge lettering.
17. Ex - H. Jeff Browning - Sotheby’s/Stack’s “Dallas Bank
Collection” sale, October 29-30, 2001, Lot 50, sold for $675,000 -
Spectrum Numismatics - John Albanese - East Coast collector. Regular
"Very Fine or better". Ex - Sotheby’s auction, December 9, 1992, Lot
837, sold for $143,000.00 - private Sotheby's client. This was the discovery coin with the “sans-serif” edge lettering of 1906.
Inverted "sans serif" edge lettering.
"About Uncirculated". Ex - Sotheby’s New York auction, June 21, 1995, Lot 485,
sold for $242,000.00.
Inverted “sans serif” edge lettering.
Private collection. Ex - Stack’s auction, June 1979, Lot 781.
specimen in the Theodore Roosevelt Museum may not exist.
we noted an incorrect citation that shows the Frank Hein Family collection
coin (see above) as being from the “B. Max Mehl sale of ‘The William D.
Waltman, Jack Roe, and Maurice A. Ryan Numismatic Collections‘, June 12,
1945, sold for $4,350. The 1907 double eagle that appeared there was a
normal wire rim High Relief, which sold for under $200. The only coin in
the sale that realized $4,350 was a Kellogg & Co. $50 gold piece.
Images courtesy of Heritage
The finest Proof Lettered Edge Ultra-High
Relief Double Eagles graded by PCGS
are 4 PR-68's.
Ultra-High Relief Double Eagle is actually a Pattern issue, struck to test
the design concepts of Augustus Saint-Gaudens. Mint officials were
fully aware of the impracticality of the design and the technical
difficulties inherent in its production, but they were under pressure from
the President, Theodore Roosevelt, to produce a tangible version of
Saint-Gaudens classic design. The result is one of the rarest and most
valuable of all American coins.
The importance and popularity
of the 1907 Ultra-High Relief is undisputed. In the recently published book
“100 Greatest U.S. Coins” (by Jeff Garrett and Ron Guth), the Ultra-High
Relief was voted fifth best by the members of the prestigious Professional
Numismatists Guild, placing it among such aristocratic company as the 1804
Silver Dollar, the 1913 Liberty Nickel, and the unique 1849 Double Eagle.
Time-line of the Ultra-High
Relief $20 Gold Piece:
1901 - President Theodore Roosevelt
and the artist Augustus Saint-Gaudens meet at the Pan-American Exposition
and begin a correspondence.
1905 (November 6) -
Saint-Gaudens writes to President Roosevelt: “…I was looking at some gold
coins of Alexander the Great today, and I was struck by their high relief.
Would not it be well to have our coins in high relief, and also to have the
1906 (January 9) -
Saint-Gaudens writes to President Roosevelt: “Whatever I produce cannot be
worse than the inanities now displayed on our coins.”
1906 (First Quarter) -
Saint-Gaudens’ health deteriorates (cancer) and he turns over the completion
of the Ultra-High Relief models to his assistant, Henry Hering.
1906 (December 20) - President
Roosevelt writes to Saint-Gaudens, praising him on the models and instructs
the Director of the Mint to create the dies as quickly as possible.
1907 (February) - the first
Ultra-High Reliefs are struck.
1907 (July) - George E.
Roberts resigns as Director of the Mint
1907 (August 3) -
1907 (September) - Frank A.
Leach becomes the Director of the Mint.
The Words of the Director of
the Mint, Frank Leach
From "RECOLLECTIONS OF A
NEWSPAPER MAN – A Record of Life and Events in California" by Frank A.
Leach, published in 1917
“Another very important matter
was in hand in the bureau when I arrived at Washington, which was soon to
cause me some anxiety, and that was the perfection of President Roosevelt’s
scheme for new designs for all the gold coins of our country. There were a
number prominent people in the East, especially in New York and Boston, who
some time before began an agitation for an improvement in appearance of all
our coinage. The President quickly became the leading spirit of the
movement. The prevalent idea in this undertaking was that the design and
execution of our coinage were inferior and inartistic when compared with
those of ancient Greece; and as the coins used by a nation are one of the
most enduring records of the art and mechanical skills of its age, our
government should make an issue of coinage that would leave to future
generations and ages something that would more truthfully and correctly
reflect the artistic taste and mechanical ability of our day than the
coinage then in use, unchanged for so many years. The admiration for the
ancient Greek coins unwittingly influenced those gentlemen to suggestions
that were imitative rather than original. They wanted the designs for the
proposed coinage to be brought out in high relief, or with medallic effect,
like the designs on the ancient coins. The commercial use and requirements
seemed to have been lost sight of in the enthusiasm of producing a highly
artistic coin; but in all probability none of the leading spirits in the
movement was familiar with the use of metallic money, and did not understand
that the proposed high relief would make the face of the coins so uneven
that the pieces would not “stack,” which was a condition fatal to the
practicability of the idea.
It was early in the year 1905
that President Roosevelt authorized the Director of the Mint to conclude a
contract with the famous sculptor, Saint-Gaudens, to supply designs in high
relief for the $20 and $10 gold coins. This was accomplished in July, but no
designs were finally perfected that met the approval of the President until
the early part of 1907. The first model was a design for the double eagle,
or $20 piece. Dies from the model were made at the Philadelphia mint. On
trial, the dies gave such a high relief to the figures on the design that
all efforts to produce a perfect or satisfactory coin on the regular coining
presses were ineffectual. A medal press was then resorted to, that the
beauty of the design might be studied and preserved in the shape of a coin,
but even by this process it required about twelve blows or impressions in
the press for each piece, with an annealing process between each stroke of
the process. The annealing process consists of heating the coin to a
cherry-red heat and cooling it in a diluted solution of acid. This process
eliminates the copper alloy on the surface of the coin and leaves the piece
covered with a thin film of pure gold. As a work of art the pieces were
beautiful, but had more the appearance of medals than coins for daily use.
Nineteen pieces only from this model were struck on the medal press, and
these were subsequently given to mint and Washington officials connected to
There were some who thought
that by reducing the diameter of the piece to about the size of a “checker,”
with a corresponding increase in the thickness, the much desired high relief
might be struck on the ordinary coin press; accordingly dies were made and
several pieces struck, when it was discovered that the coinage act, passed
in 1890, prohibited the change of the diameter of any coin. Thirteen pieces
were struck from this small die for the thick or checker pieces, but with
the exception of two coins placed in the cabinet or collection of coins at
the Philadelphia mint, all of these pieces were melted and destroyed on
account of the improper or illegal dimensions.
Saint-Gaudens then attempted
to facilitate the work of coinage by supplying another or second set of
models with the relief reduced to some extent, but satisfactory results were
not obtained on the regular coinage presses. He then made a third model with
still further and greater reduction of the high relief. The failure gave
rise to considerable friction between the artist and the mint authorities.
The President had become impatient and began to think that the mint
officials were not showing a zeal in the work that promised results. It was
at this stage of undertaking that I came into the office of Director. Before
I had become familiar with my surroundings the President sent for me. In the
interview that followed he told me what he wanted, and what the failures and
his disappointments had been, and proceeded to advise me as to what I should
do to accomplish the purpose determined upon in the way of new coinage. In
this talk he suggested some details of action of a drastic character for my
guidance, which he was positive were necessary to be adopted before success
could be had. All this was delivered in usual vigorous way, emphasizing many
points by hammering on the desk with his fist. This was my first interview
with the President, and it was somewhat embarrassing for me to oppose his
views, but I felt that it was essential to my success that I should be
untrammeled by any interference in the plans that I should adopt to secure
the production of the new coinage. I determined then and there that if I
could not have free rein in the matter I would not attempt the work. In my
reply to the President I finally made the wisdom of my position clear to
him. I explained to him how I had not yet had time to look into the matter
and locate the causes of failure, consequently could not say what was
necessary to correct them. At any rate, I would have to insist that these
were matters of details that should be left to my judgment.
“All you want, Mr. President,”
I said, “is the production of the coin with the new design, is it not?”
“Yes,” said he.
“Well, that I promise you.”
He said he guessed I was right
in my attitude in the matter, but I think he was not very confident of my
getting results, for when a few days later I laid upon his desk a sample of
beautifully executed double eagles, of the Saint-Gaudens design, he was most
enthusiastic in his expressions of pleasure and satisfaction. I certainly
believed him when he declared he was “delighted.” He warmly congratulated me
on my success, and was most complimentary in his comments.
“Now,” he said, “I want enough
of these coins within thirty days to make a distribution throughout the
country, that the people may see what they are like.” I replied that we
would be able to meet with his desire, although I explained that the issue
would have to be struck on medal presses from the second design model, but
that in a few weeks later, we would have dies completed from model No. 3
with lower relief, so that the coins, when made, would meet the requirements
of the bankers and business men in “stacking,” etc., and these could be
struck on the regular coin presses in the usual way. The pleasure of the
President was manifested in the heartiness of his thanks. I had every medal
press in the Philadelphia mint put into operation on these coins with an
extra force of workmen, so that the presses were run day and night. The
officers of the mint entered into the spirit of the work cut out for them,
putting zest into the operations which assured me that the issue of the new
double eagles, so greatly desired by the President, would be made on time.
In fact, we delivered to the Treasurer of the United States 12,153 double
eagles, representing $243,060, which was considerably more than asked of us,
several days ahead of time. I came in for more compliments from the
President. In his enthusiastic way he introduced me to several of his
Cabinet officers who were present in his office, as a “man who got results.”
The coins of this issue, when made available to the public, were much sought
after by people who wanted to keep them as souvenirs or as additions to
numismatic collections. Contrary to expectations, a premium was demanded by
dealers soon after the distribution began, and by the time it was ended the
premium has increased to about an average of fifteen dollars on a piece. The
newspapers gave much space to criticism, both by their own editors and from
correspondents. Opinions as to the merits of the new coin were fairly well
divided. The artistic appearance of the coin was generally recognized, but
it could scarcely claim a popular reception. The design of the eagle on the
reverse side of the coin was the object of much adverse comment.
Saint-Gaudens did not use any originality in the design of the eagle, but
simply copied that used on the penny coined in 1857, following the feature
of the bird flying with its talons extended backward under the tail
feathers, instead of being drawn up under the breast, the position most
generally observed in the birds of prey when flying about.
While discussing with the
President the criticism by the public, I spoke of the position of the talons
as being incorrect. This the president promptly denied, and said that if I
would visit the large aviary at Rock Creek Park I would find the eagles
flying about just as represented by the Saint-Gaudens design. I did not know
then that the President was such a close observer of things in nature, and,
having doubts as to the accuracy of his opinion, I went to the aviary as he
had suggested. I did not have to wait to be convinced of the correctness of
the President’s assertion, for the very first flight of an eagle across the
aviary showed the talons extended out behind, in the manner of a crane of
The greatest extent of
unpleasant criticism over the new issue was aroused by the discovery that
the motto, “In God we trust,” had been omitted from it. The President’s
mail, as well as that of the Secretary of the Treasury, was flooded with
letters, some mild and many bitter, in protest against the removal of the
motto. So loud became this protest that the President felt called upon to
defend the omission, in a statement to the press, wherein he took the
position that it was a profane use of the name of God, and the motto had
been very properly omitted. He could have made an explanation that would
have silenced all criticism and relieved himself of the responsibility for
the omission if he had referred his critics to coinage acts of the
The statutes of the United
States supply the only words and mottoes that shall appear on the various
coins authorized by the act of Congress. For many years the motto, “In God
we trust,” was included with other word requirements by law. In 1890 the
coinage act was changed in several particulars, and when the re-enactment
was completed the motto in question, whether by design or accident, had been
omitted. So when Saint-Gaudens was given the words and figures that must
appear on the coins, the motto was not included. When this was understood an
appeal was made to Congress, and that body quickly authorized the
restoration of the words, “In God we trust.”
While the people were talking
about the new coins, the mint officials were busy working on the dies from
model number three, and their efforts to produce them on the ordinary
coining presses were finally crowned with success, and by the latter part of
December the mint presses were striking off new double eagles at the rate of
about $1,000,000 daily. Excepting the addition of the motto, the design is
the same as that used in the coining of $20 pieces at all the mints of the
government ever since.
Sources and/or recommended
"The PCGS Population Report, July 2003" by The
Professional Coin Grading Service
Richard Ariagno Collection“, Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles,
Inc., May 31-June 2, 1999
Bank’ Collection”, Sotheby’s/Stack’s, October 29-30, 2001
Collection, Part III,” Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc.,
February 24-25, 2003
Greatest U.S. Coins” by Jeff Garrett and Ron Guth
Breen’s Complete Encyclopedia of U.S. and Colonial Coins” by Walter Breen