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Obverse of 1786 Vermont Copper - Ryder 6      Reverse of 1786 Vermont Copper - Ryder 6


1786 VERMONT COPPER - 
RYDER 6

PCGS No: 545

Rarity: Common

Variety equivalents:
Breen 713, Bressett 4-D

Notes:
This was the only use of the obverse die. 

This was the only use of the reverse die.

Attribution keys:
Obverse - VERMONTENSIUM, 7 trees, recut U in PUBLICA, sun ray points to space between E and S of RES

Reverse - sometimes with die breaks in stars below QUARTA

Images courtesy of Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles

Significant examples:
PCGS AU-55 (illustrated above).  Ex - Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc.'s "Benson I", February 2001, Lot 80 - Paul Arthur Norris - Ira & Larry Goldberg Coins & Collectibles, Inc.'s "Pre-Long Beach Sale", September 23 & 24, 2002, Lot 76, illustrated, where it was described as follows: "...Obverse with seven trees, ray points between ES. U of PUBLICA sharply recut low, diagnostic of this obverse. One of the very finest graded of this variety, PCGS in their Population Report note 4 graded this high, with just a single coin graded higher, that a thin hair above at AU-58. No mint state coins have yet been graded. Further, most of those seen grade from VG to VF, and these are frequently found on less than perfect planchets. On this particular example we note a few minor planchet flaws, one on the edge above NS of VERMONTENSIUM, another on the reverse edge above the M of DECIMA. Toned a natural chocolate brown in color, with darker areas noted around the trees. The strike on and around the plow is particularly nice, and the fields and surfaces are very nice for the grade. Localized striking weakness is noted on ENSIUM and on the opposing areas of the reverse. The central reverse all seeing eye is sharp, and the coin is well centered. An impressive example of this important variety that is certain to attract many appreciative numismatists who would find it a welcome addition to their collections.
The Latin obverse legend of VERMONTENSIUM RES PUBLICA translates to "the Republic of the Green Mountains" (Ryder/Slafter) and the obverse device was to consist of "A sun rising, with mountains and trees in the foreground, and a plough in the field beneath." while the reverse device had to have "A radiated eye, surrounded by thirteen stars" and the legend QUARTA. DECIMA. STELLA. or the fourteenth star, referring to Vermonts desire to become the next state after the original thirteen colonies joined to form the United States. This did come pass, but not until 1791 when Vermont officially became the 14th state to join the union.
After the necessary legislation and authorization, the bond requirements were met and suitable lodgings for the coinage we procured, Reuben Harmon began coinage in earnest. Reports vary, but it has been suggested that the coining equipment obtained could strike as many as 60 pieces per minute, although usually half that number were coined using the screw press (Ryder/Slafter). An historic example of this precious state coinage made during the brief tenure after the Revolution, but prior to the Vermont joining the other states officially in the Union."

Recent appearances:
PCGS EF-40.  Ex - Bowers and Merena Galleries "The Rarities Sale", January 7, 2003, Lot 3, off-center on the obverse, fissure atop 86

"Details of Extremely Fine.  Ex - Early American History Auctions, Inc.'s Mail Bid Sale, October 14, 2000, Lot 1009, where it was described as follows: "128.1 grains. This coin has probably never seen a day of wear, but the alternatingly rough and smooth surfaces indicate that it probably went into the ground shortly after it was struck, where it awaited discovery for a number of years. A dark (almost black) patina has developed over both sides, but there are still areas of olive-brown color scattered about. A natural fissure appears to the right of the date, affecting the plow, and the reverse was struck off-center." - Early American History Auctions, Inc.'s Mail Bid Sale, August 25, 2001, Lot 1422

VF-35 (illustrated below).  Ex - Washington State Coin Auction - San Diego Show, Inc. Auction Company, August 31, 1990, Lot 2473 - Superior Galleries' "Pre-Long Beach Sale", October 1-3, 2000, Lot 1033, where it was described as follows: "Ryder-6 Rarity-2 VF35. Landscape VERMONTENSIUM. Choice glossy chocolate brown with a smooth, well above average planchet. The only flaws are a few minor fissures at the rim over NTENS and opposing area at A-DEC. Free of contact marks or other problems. The bottom of the date is very tight to the edge of the planchet as the dies were slightly out of proper alignment (as usual for landscape Vermont's). MDS, before the crack up through the date. Comes with an ANACS photo grading certificate as Extremely Fine. Weight 115.7 grains."

"Very Fine-25".  Ex - Superior Stamp & Coin's "The ANA 2000 National Money Show Auction", March 2-3, 2000, Lot 29, "109.4 grains"

"Very Fine".  Ex - Early American History Auctions, Inc.'s Mail Bid Sale, August 25, 2001, Lot 1423, where it was described as follows: "1786 VT Copper, Landscape type, "VERMONTENSIUM," Ryder 6, Very Fine.  108.7 grains. medium brown with lighter high points. Nice details, including complete legends, a full plow, mountains, and sun. The only weakness is on some of the rays on the reverse. The planchet is slightly wavy due to some old hits, but the wear paterns are nice and even. The date is completely on the planchet but marred by a natural void that affects the plow and the 8 of the date."

SEGS VF-20, corroded.  Ex - Superior Galleries' "Pre-Long Beach Coin Sale", May 27-29, 2001, Lot 1028, not plated, where it was described as follows: "1786 Vermont Ryder-6 Rarity-2 SEGS graded Very Fine-20 corroded. Landscape VERMONTENSIUM. Reddish chocolate brown and olive. The planchet is free of fissures, but it is covered with uniform fine porosity. The date is weak but readable, as is most of the legend."

SEGS Fine-12.  Ex - Superior Galleries' "Pre-Long Beach Coin Sale", May 27-29, 2001, Lot 1029, plated, where it was described as follows: "1786 Vermont Ryder-6 Rarity-2 SEGS graded Fine-12. VERMONTENSIUM. Glossy medium brown with darker olive toning in a few of the most protected areas. The planchet is free of corrosion or contact marks, but there are several shallow fissures on both sides, plus a deep one running down the right side of the obverse missing the sun and plow. These fissures are as struck, of course, and are normally found on the Landscape Vermonts. Pieces without any fissures are rare. The date is clear as is most of the legend."

Sources and/or recommended reading:
"Copper Coins of Vermont" by Tony Carlotto

"The Colonial Coins of Vermont" by Hillyer Ryder

"Vermont Copper Coinage" by Kenneth Bressett (Chapter 11 in "Studies on Money in Early America" by Eric P. Newman and Richard C. Doty)

"Walter Breen's Complete Encyclopedia Of U.S. And Colonial Coins" by Walter Breen

Obverse of 1786 Vermont Copper - Ryder 6     Reverse of 1786 Vermont Copper - Ryder 6

Ex - Bowers & Merena "Hinckley" (Intermediate die state)
Images courtesy of Ron Guth

Obverse of 1786 Vermont Copper - Ryder 6     Reverse of 1786 Vermont Copper - Ryder 6

VF-35 (Late Die State)
Images courtesy of Superior Galleries